European Weiqi Referees Training Class

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Re: European Weiqi Referees Training Class

Сообщение Наталья » 02 июн 2020, 01:23

З подивом дізналась, що компенсація на дошці 9х9 за китайською системою така само, як і на дошці 19х19.
З усіх правил, про які нам розповідають вчителі, вибудовується дуже красива система. В її основі - дисципліна і повага, не лише послідовність ходів і обрахунку, хоча цьому приділена велика увага.

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Re: European Weiqi Referees Training Class

Сообщение Наталья » 02 июн 2020, 14:12

Матеріал четвертого тижня від китайських Вчителів отримали у день першої робочої наради спортивного відділу Київського Палацу дітей та юнацтва з моменту оголошення карантину.
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Re: European Weiqi Referees Training Class

Сообщение Наталья » 06 июн 2020, 13:00

Rules of Weiqi (Go) 2002.
Lessons 3 and 4.

1:02:05 lesson 3

Hello, everyone. This is Yang Shuang, a Professional player and also a Referee of Chinese Weiqi Association. It’s a great honor to have this opportunity to study Chinese Weiqi Rules with you.
In this beautiful season we should get chance to study together face to face. Due to the sudden pandemic disease we can only stay at home, through the internet studying.
I hope all difficulties will pass soon. I believe that with the joint efforts of people from all over the world we will pass over the difficulties hand in hand. And everything will be fine.
OK, I think you are also Go players. The name of this game which called Weiqi in China. Weiqi is one of the oldest game in the world. Weiqi originated in China thousands years ago. “Wei” refers to the encirclement or siege. “Qi” refers to the pieces and the board. “Weiqi” refers to the surrounding board game. Weiqi has very simple rules and the concepts, but the complex strategy which is very much apart of oriental culture. People have been playing Weiqi for thousands of years. But the complete site of rules wasn’t written down until 1949 in Japan.
First Chinese Weiqi Rules for formal competitions was published in 1957. They were used for International Weiqi competitions. Today we are going to study the Chinese Weiqi Rules published the year 2002. Which is the latest version and they are currently used in the Chinese Weiqi competitions. It’s composed of 5 Chapters and the Appendix.
Chapter 1. Main Rules.
Chapter 2. Rules for Competition.
Chapter 3. Rules for Referees.
Chapter 4. The Methods of Competition.
Chapter 5. Competition Organisation and Other Things.
And Appendix is Pairing Methods for Tournaments.
The English Version refers to Chinese Professional 5 Dan Guo Juan’s translation.
We will study the first two Chapters together which are about Basic Concepts of Weiqi and Competition Rules . We will study the clauses one by one. After learning the content of the First Chapter I will explain the Chinese stones counting method in detail. If time enough, in the end of this course I will introduce some special cases and characteristics of Chinese Rules. In the process of learning, if you have any questions or any confusion please tell me or e-mail me without hesitation.

Now let’s look at the Chapter 1. Main Rules.
Include 9 clauses, which state the Basic Concepts about Weiqi for the Competitions.
1. “Weiqi (Go) equipment.
1.1. Weiqi (Go) board
The Weiqi (Go) board is marked by 19 horizontal and 19 vertical straight lines forming a grid with 361 intersections. These intersections are called “dian”.
“Dian” is Chinese, which means “points”. This tells us the standard board for competitions. The game may also being played on smaller boards such as 9 by 9, 13 by 13 etc. Normally the smaller boards are just for training or entertainment games.
“+ The overall shape of the board is such that the horizontal lines are slightly shorter than the vertical lines. Typically, every grid rectangle on the board is 2.4 cm by 2.3 cm.”

(diagram 1 – 19x19 board) – picture.

“There are 9 intersections marked by small circles which are called “star” points. The star point at board center is called “tianyuan”. (see diagram 1)”

“Tianyuan” is Chinese, means “the central point”.

“1.2 Stones
Weiqi (Go) stones are made of two colours: black or white. The stones are shaped as flattened spheres. There should be enough stones available to play a completed game. Gor official tournament competition, there should be 180 black stones and 180 white stones.

2. General manner of play.
2.1 There are two players. One player uses the white stones, and the other player uses the black stones.
2.2 The board is empty at the beginning of the game. ”

This clause tells us about a situation of even games, not include the handicap games. We all know in European and American countries the handicap games may be played in many matches, according to player skill level. But in China handicap games are only for training or friendly games. The rules for handicap games are established by users. There are no formal documents yet.
2.3 Black plays first, White second, and they take turns placing one stone at a time at the intersections on the board.
2.4 Once a stone is played on the board, it cannot be moved to another place on the board. - … more details about the right to play a move and what is the takeback move – in Chapter 3 Clause 17.3.
2.5 It is each player’s right to play a stone, but either side may also pass to give up the turn.
- … about the passing in AGA Complete Rules is said: “On his or her turn a player may pass by handing the opponent’s stone, referred to as a pass stone ”. This never happened in Chinese Rules because this is meaningless.
“3. Liberties of stones
When a stone is placed on the board, an unoccupied neighboring intersection connected by a straight line is called a liberty.
If there are stones of the same color which are next to each other, occupying contiguous horizontal or vertical intersections, these stones are connected and form one indivisible unit.
If there is a stone of opposite color right next to a stone, the liberty at thet intersection does not exist anymore. If a stone loses all of its liberties, it is captured and removed from the board.
4. Capturing stones
Removing stones with no liberties from the board is called capturing, i.e. “ti zi”

-… “ti zi” is Chinese which means “capture”.

There are two methods of capturing stones:
4.1 When a stone is played which eliminates the last liberty of the opponent’s stone or group, that stone or group should be immediately taken off the board.
4.2 After one player places a stone, and a situation occurs where the stones of both players become liberty-less, then the player who has just placed the stone takes the opponent’s stones off the board.

More details about taking stones in Chapter 3. Clause 18.

5. Forbidden intersection
A player cannot place a stone on any intersection if that play results in no liberty for the stone and that play is not a capturing move. This intersection is called a “forbidden intersection”.

For example (picture diagram 2), in diagram 2 all intersections marked with “A” are forbidden intersections for Black. If a move played on a forbidden intersection – esteemed invalid and the player loses one turn. Later clause tells more about forbidden intersections.

6. Forbidden repetition of the same shape on the whole board
It is forbidden to create a whole board shape which has appeared before.
(A capturing move that creates a repeated board position is known as a Ko or Jie).
“Jie” is Chinese.
-… When Ko happens, it’s forbidden to immediately play Ko-capture without first playing a Ko-threat. And more repeated position such as Triple Ko, Eternal Life, Two-Stones Life etc.
More details stated in Chapter 3. Clause 20.

7. Ending the game
7.1 A game is played until both parties agree that it is finished.
7.2 During the game, if one player resigns, the game is finished.
7.3 If both players pass one after the other, the game is finished.

About ending the game more details state in later clauses.

8. Living stones and dead stones
8.1 When the game is finished, by agreement of both parties, all un-removable stones are living stones.
8.2 When the game is finished, by agreement of both parties, all removable stones are dead stones.

If any disagreement happens, the game is resumed. More details state in Chapter 3. Clause 21.

9. Determining the winner
When a game is completed, the winner is determined by the method of stone counting. After all dead stones are removed from the board, count either of two players’ living stones plus all unoccupied intersections which are surrounded by those living stones.

The unoccupied intersections between both players’ living stones are divided by two, and each player is credited with half. (-…such as mutual life or seki)
Half of the total intersections of the entire board is 180.5 which is the basic number. (-… the basic number is very important in Chinese stone counting so you must remember it). If one player’s counted points are more than the basic number, that player is a winner. If the counted points equal to 180.5, the game is a tie. If the counted points are less than 180.5, then that player is the loser.

-…This tells us the situation without any compensation. No komi games.

If the tournament uses compensation, then a different rule will be set to determine winning or losing.

-…That’s all the content about Chapter 1. Before we go on to the next Chapter, let’s learn more details about Chinese stone counting.

The compensation points in Chinese is “tie zi”. The number of “tie zi” much different with komi because of the different method for scores counting.
-… I think you are all understood the Japanese territory counting. In the end of the game it uses the comparing method to know the winner. Black’s territory compares with White’s territory. More than the komi – Black wins. Otherwise Black loses. Actually during the game per size.
Chinese players use comparing methods to evaluate the situation, who is better. But after game’s finished the stone counting is totally different in method.
Black’s area or White’s area compare with the basic number 180.5, the area means stones plus territory. If Black’s area minus “tie zi” more that 180.5 – also can say Black’s area more than 180.5 plus “tie zi” – Black wins. Otherwise Black loses.
If counting White’s territory, White area plus “tie zi” more than 180.5 - also can say White’s area more than 180.5 minus “tie zi”, - then White wins. Otherwise White loses.
Please remember: using stone counting just counting one size area to know the result.

In theory, the number of “komi” is twice as much as the number of “tiezi”, “tiezi” is a half of “komi”. For example, Chinese “tiezi” is 3 ¾ stones, equals 7.5 komi.

Before the year of 2002, the “tiezi” (compensation) is 2 ¾ stones (Komi is 5.5 poinnts), which is the Rules of Weiqi published in 1988. After the Rules of Weiqi in 2002 published, the “tiezi” (compensation) changed to 3 ¾ stones (Komi is 7.5 points).
How many stones of black can win and how many stones of white can win?

Calculating method:
361 : ½ = 180.5 (the basic number)
Black: 180.5 + 3.75 (compensated number) =184.25
White: 180.5 – 3.75 (compensated number)=176.75
If Black’s total stones are 185, Black wins by ¾ (0.75)
If White’s total stones are 177, White wins by ¼ (0.25)

Let’s see an example. Game played between two Professional Women players. It’s very close game. We can see the last move. 258. Which is the last danguan.
“Danguan” is Chinese which means just a single point. No other value. You know it as a neutral point.
Using stone counting you must finish all of the danguan on the board, we can see the game. There’s no danguan anymore.
But the special point on the upright corner. The last diagram in the corner should be like the small diagram. So we can understand the situation. It’s mutual life or seki. So point A is divided by 2. A half-stone for each side.

After counting other stones remember to plus the half-stone.
You can see there some dead stones or prisoners in both territories. The dead stones are useless for stone counting.

The prisoners (dead stones) don’t affect the result, so it is unnecessary to keep them for result counting. Before counting stones, please make sure that there is no “danguan” (neutral point) anymore.
How to count the area? Three steps:
1. Take off the dead stones for both sides.
2. Only counting one side’s area. Using integral multiples, such as 10, 20, 30….., then plus them together and remember total integral territory number (using opponent’s stones to hint).
3. Counting remaining stones make ten pieces in a group. Last the territorial number plus the remaining pieces are the total stones of the side.
Let’s go back to the example diagram. Before counting:
1. To make sure there is no “danguan” (neutral point) between the territorial boundary.
2. Take off the dead stones for both sides.

This time the diagram shows that the dead stones are taken off the board already. So we can start counting.

If counting black:
Black’s territory:
Using integral multiples, up total is 50 points.
Under side is 20 points.
Left under corner is 10 points.
Total are 80 points.
Remaining total stones are 104.
Plus all of the territory and stones and also half A,
So black’s total is 184.5.
I think you know who wins already. That’s right. Black won by a ¼ stone. It’s really a close game.

If counting White.

The same result shown as follow.


White’s territory:
Up left corner is 30 points.
Left side is 20 points.
Right under corner is 20 points.
Middle is 10.
Total are 80 points.
Remaining total stones are 96.
Plus all of the territory and stones and also a half A,
So White total is 176.5.
I think you know already. Right. The same result. White lost by a ¼ (quarter) stone.

The characteristics of stone counting are summarized as follows:
1. It’s unnecessary to keep the prisoners or dead stones for result counting. Clear the dead stones before counting.
2. The “danguan” (neutral point) must be finished before result counting.
3. Only counting one side’s area (territory plus stones).
4. The “tiezi” (compensation) is 3 ¾ stones, so Black must have more than 184 ¼ stones to win, White must have more than 176 ¾ stones to win.

Are you clear about the stone counting?
Next let’s take a look at review to deepen our understanding.
You must have heard of the ultimate Weiqi Match – Man VS Machine.
Chinese Professional 9 Dan Ke Jie challenged the Machine - Alpha Go, 3 match series, which played in May 2017 in Wuzhen, China.
The games played in Chinese Rules.
The first game in the end was a very close game. Ke Jie was Black. Alpha Go was White. I did the Referee job and counted for the game. At that time I counted White’s area. White Alpha Go got 177 stones. Won by a quarter stone. Do you know how many Black is already? It’s easy question for you. Yes, Black is 184.
Lost by a ¼ stone.
It’s simple. Just use the whole board 361 points, minus White's area 177, = 184 is Black’s area.
Now, let’s take a look at the video.
Последний раз редактировалось Наталья 06 июн 2020, 13:30, всего редактировалось 2 раза.

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Re: European Weiqi Referees Training Class

Сообщение Наталья » 06 июн 2020, 13:03

Урок 3 містить у першій своїй половині детальне пояснення, як саме відбувається обрахунок очок за китайськими правилами 2002 року.
Записала текст з відео, разом з поясненнями Вчителя Yang Shuang

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Re: European Weiqi Referees Training Class

Сообщение Наталья » 06 июн 2020, 13:09

У вас нет необходимых прав для просмотра вложений в этом сообщении.

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Re: European Weiqi Referees Training Class

Сообщение Наталья » 06 июн 2020, 13:10

Діаграми і фото до 3 уроку, текст вище.
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